Dynamics of Speed
Table of Contents
Introduction
   How to Use This Manual
The Basic Equation
Its All Tires
   Grip
   Load Paths Within the Tire
   Tire Slippage Through the Contact Patch:  Straight Line Rolling
   Tire Slippage Through the Contact Patch:  Corning Slip Angles
Go vs. Slow Minimizing Friction and Drag
   Straight Line Rolling Resistance
   Cornering Rolling Resistance Induced Drag
   Parasitic Drag
   Aerodynamic Drag
Tires Again Rolling Resistance Revisited
   The Tire Itself
           Rim Diameter
           Tire Width
           Rim Width
            Air Pressure
           Amount of Rubber on the Tire
           Tire Profile
           Tire Construction
           Tire Compound
            Tire Chemicals
   Tuning the Tire and Chassis System
           The Tires Normal (or Vertical) Loading
           The Tires Lateral Loading
           The Tires Longitudinal Loading (Acceleration or Deceleration)
           The Combination of How the Tires are Loaded at Any Given Time
           The Track Condition Variation Which Each of the Tires Experience
           Tuning the Chassis
Preparing for the Driver
   Getting Comfortable
   Getting the Balance
           Close Enough to Tune
Beyond the Tires
   The Chassis
   The Seat
   The Body
Chassis Dynamics
   Static Conditions and Their Correlation to Dynamic Conditions
   Rear Stagger
   Front End  Geometry
           Longitudinal Movement (Forward and Backward)
           Lateral Movement (Inward)
           Vertical Movement (Up and Down)
           Camber Gain
           Ackermann
   Weight Transfer
   Lateral Weight Transfer
   Longitudinal Weight Transfer
   Vertical Weight Transfer (or weight gain due to banked corners)
   Transient Conditions
           Dynamic Grip Potential
           Turn-in
           From Turn-in to Apex
           Apex
           Center Off
           Cornering Differences on Slick Tracks and High Bite Tracks
           Straightaway
   Track Size and Its Effect on Setup
   Track Surface and Chassis Dynamics
20 Laps
The Driver
Saturday Night Racing
Jr Drivers
Oval Kart Chassis Development
   Generation 1 ~1992 to 1996
   Generation 2 1997 to mid 1999
   Generation 3 mid 1999 to 2004 and on
    Generation 4 2004 to ??
Chassis Adjustments
   LF Camber
   RF Camber
   Left Weight
   Nose Weight
   Cross Weight
   LF and RF Castor
   RF Lead
   Rear Axle Lead
   Front Stagger
   RF Spacing (on the spindle)
   LF Spacing (on the spindle)
   RR Spacing
   LR Spacing
   LR Rim Width
   Right Side Rim Widths
Tuning With Tires
   New or Old Rubber
Tuning With Tire Temperatures
   Requirements for Tire Temperatures and Pressure Gains Before Analyzing
   Tire Temperatures vs. Pressure Gain
   How Does a Tire Generate Temperature?
   What to Look At
   What To Look For
           The Individual Tire Temperatures
           The Average Temperature for Each Tire
           Left vs. Right and Front vs. Rear
           Cross vs. Off Temperatures
   Problems with Tuning with Tires
Data Acquisition
   Lap Time Analysis
   RPM Analysis
   Speed Analysis
   Lateral G Analysis
Questions and Answers
   The Kart Is Tight Center Out (on the RR)
   The Kart is Pushing From the Center Off
   My Kart is Loose Exiting the Corner
   The Kart is Neither Loose nor Tight nor Pushing, It Is Just Slow
   The Kart is Loose at Initial Turn-In
   The Kart Wont Turn Down Into the Corner
   The Kart Drives Good and I Know the Tires are Good But Im still 0.2 sec Off
   The Kart is Fast at the Start but Starts to Slow Down By the End of the Race
   The Kart Takes Too Long to Come In
   Is There Any Advantage to Running a Big Steering Wheel or Moving the Tie Rod on the
Pitman Arm
   My Kart Doesnt Respond to Changes
   My Kart Slides in One Location in One Corner, But Im as Fast or Faster Than Anyone
           Else
   Im As Fast as Everyone Else in the Last Practice but They All Pick Up for Qualifying
           and I Dont
   How Much Castor Should I run?
Glossary